Math¶
At the root of computer vision is a heavy amount of math and probability. Theia contains various math functions implemented with a generic interface for ease of use.
Closed Form Polynomial Solver¶
Many problems in vision rely on solving a polynomial quickly. For small degrees (n <= 4) this can be done in closed form, making them exceptionally fast. We have implemented solvers for these cases.

int
SolveQuadraticReals
(double a, double b, double c, double *roots)¶

int
SolveQuadratic
(double a, double b, double c, std::complex<double> *roots)¶ Provides solutions to the equation \(a*x^2 + b*x + c = 0\)

int
SolveCubicReals
(double a, double b, double c, double d, double *roots)¶

int
SolveCubic
(double a, double b, double c, double d, std::complex<double> *roots)¶ Provides solutions to the equation \(a*x^3 + b*x^2 + c*x + d = 0\) using Cardano’s method.

int
SolveQuarticReals
(double a, double b, double c, double d, double e, double *roots)¶

int
SolveQuartic
(double a, double b, double c, double d, double e, std::complex<double> *roots)¶ Provides solutions to the equation \(a*x^4 + b*x^3 + c*x^2 + d*x + e = 0\) using Ferrari’s method to reduce to problem to a depressed cubic.
Generic Polynomial Solver¶
For polynomials of degree > 4 there are no easy closedform solutions, making the problem of finding roots much more difficult. However, we have implemented several functions that will solve for polynomial roots. For all polynomials we require that the largest degree appears first and the smallest degree appears last in the input VectorXd.

bool
FindPolynomialRoots
(const Eigen::VectorXd &polynomial, Eigen::VectorXd *real, Eigen::VectorXd *imaginary)¶ Roots are computed using the Companion Matrix with balancing to help improve the condition of the matrix system we solve. This is a reliable, stable method for computing roots but is most often the slowest method.

bool
FindRealPolynomialRoots
(const Eigen::VectorXd &polynomial, Eigen::VectorXd *real)¶ Using the Companion Matrix method above, we return only the real roots of the polynomial.

bool
FindRealPolynomialRootsSturm
(const Eigen::VectorXd &coeffs, Eigen::VectorXd *real_roots)¶ Real roots are bracketed within a boundary by analyzing Sturm sequences. Once a root has been isolated to a bound, an iterative solver is used to determine the actual root.

double
FindRealRootIterative
(const Eigen::VectorXd &polynomial, const double x0, const double epsilon, const int max_iter)¶ Finds a single polynomials root iteratively based on the starting position \(x_0\) and guaranteed precision of epsilon.
GuassJordan¶

void
GaussJordan
(Eigen::MatrixBase<Derived> *input, int max_rows = 99999)¶ Perform traditional GaussJordan elimination on an Eigen3 matrix. If
max_rows
is specified, it will on perform GaussJordan on the firstmax_rows
number of rows. This is useful for problems where your system is extremely overdetermined and you do not need all rows to be solved.
Sequential Probability Ratio Test¶
Modified version of Wald’s SPRT as [Matas] et. al. implement it in “Randomized RANSAC with Sequential Probability Ratio Test”

double
CalculateSPRTDecisionThreshold
(double sigma, double epsilon, double time_compute_model_ratio = 200.0, int num_models_verified = 1)¶ sigma
: Probability of rejecting a good model (Bernoulli parameter).epsilon
: Inlier ratio.time_compute_model_ratio
: Computing the model parameters from a sample takes the same time as verification of time_compute_model_ratio data points. Matas et. al. use 200.num_model_verified
: Number of models that are verified per sample.Returns
: The SPRT decision threshold based on the input parameters.

bool
SequentialProbabilityRatioTest
(const std::vector<double> &residuals, double error_thresh, double sigma, double epsilon, double decision_threshold, int *num_tested_points, double *observed_inlier_ratio)¶ Modified version of Wald’s SPRT as [Matas] et. al. implement it in “Randomized RANSAC with Sequential Probability Ratio Test”. See the paper for more details.
residuals
: Error residuals to use for SPRT analysis.error_thresh
: Error threshold for determining when Datum fits the model.sigma
: Probability of rejecting a good model.epsilon
: Inlier ratio.decision_threshold
: The decision threshold at which to terminate.observed_inlier_ratio
: Output parameter of inlier ratio tested.