Lab 5: Intro to C++

Updates

I've added the -pedantic flag to the compilation line. This will warn you if you attempt to do something like the following:

int n;
cin >> n;
int numbers[n];

The following works using clang++ (and g++) because of a compiler extension that allows dynamically-sized arrays on the stack. However, this extension is not part of the C++ standard and thus is not acceptable to use in this lab.

Goals for this lab

After completing this lab you should be able to:

  • Use C++'s std::cin and std::cout
  • Allocate and deallocate memory using new[] and delete[]
  • Define C++ classes

Lab Pairing

For this lab you may work with a partner. To facilitate your submissions as a pair you MUST pair up using the submission system. When you visit the project page from where you can view all your submission you should see a link to a page where you can join a group. Of the two people in the group, one of you must invite the other, and the other must confirm the invitation. Once you group up, any submissions that either you, or your partner have already made will be visible to each other in addition to all future submissions.

Lab Preparation

At this point, everyone should have a COE account. If you do not, you need to make that a priority and should partner up with someone who already has an account.

Before you begin, let's prepare a cs24 directory in your home directory if you don't already have one. In that directory we'll create a subdirectory for the files for this lab. Note that these instructions assume you are using either a CSIL machine or one of the lab machines:

After logging in, create the directory (assuming you haven't already done so):

mkdir -p cs24/lab5

Change the permissions of the cs24 directory such that only your account can access the files inside this directory. This step is incredibly important. If omitted, other students can peek at your work and you may be held partially responsible. It should also go without saying that you may not give other students access to your account. If you've done that in the past please change your password at this time.

chmod 700 cs24

Change into the lab5 directory and copy the files you will need for this lab:

cd cs24/lab5
cp -r ~bboe/public_html/cs24_f13/code/lab5/* .

Provided files

You will find the following files in your directory:

  • numbers.cpp -- This file contains the skeleton code for Part 1. It has the #includes that you will need and reads the first number in for you.

  • myclass.h -- This file contains the skeleton code for Part 2. It defines the C++ class MyClass for which you will have to implement the member functions.

Part 1: C++ I/O

In this lab we are going to work with a few features of C++ that diverge from their C counterparts. Your task in the fist part of the lab is to write a simple program which does the following:

  1. Read a integer from standard input (well call this number n and it will always be greater than 0)
  2. Read in n more integers from standard input
  3. Print these integers (not including n) in reverse order to standard output
  4. Print the sum of these integers (not including n) to standard output
  5. Print the average value of these integers (not including n) to standard output with the correct precision

Here is an sample execution of the program:

$ ./numbers
How many numbers will you input? 3
#1: 1
#2: 2
#3: 3
In reverse: 3 2 1
Sum: 6
Average: 2.00
$

You are to use the C++ I/O library and memory allocation/deallocation operators that are described below. Submissions using scanf/printf and malloc/free will not be accepted!

Part 2: C++ classes

For the second part of the lab, you will be writing a simple C++ class. The class definition is provided for you in myclass.h and it is up to you to implement the member functions declared in the class. The details and expected output are described in the comments of myclass.h.

The iostream library

Like C, C++ uses the stream as its primary method of input and output, however the syntax in C++ is mercifully simpler. The C++ standard I/O procedures can be found in the <iostream> library. The stream for standard input is named std::cin and the stream for standard output is named std::cout. Recall that :: is the scope resolution operator. All of the standard library functions and variables are in the std namespace so you must prefix them with std:: to use them. To write to and read from streams C++ provides the insertion and extraction operators, << and >>, which handle print formatting for you:

#include <iostream>

int main ()
{
  int i;
  std::cout << "Enter a number: "; // print to standard output
  std::cin >> i;                   // read from standard output
  std::cout << i << " squared is " << i*i << "\n";
  return 0;
}

For tighter control of output formatting, C++ provides the <iomanip> libray. In this lab we want to set the precision with which we print floating point variables. This can be done using the std::fixed and std::setprecision stream manipulators:

#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>

int main ()
{
  double pi = 3.1415927;
  std::cout << pi << "\n"; // print with default formatting

  std::cout << std::setprecision(2);
  std::cout << pi << "\n"; // print with UP TO 2 digits of precision

  std::cout << std::setprecision(9);
  std::cout << pi << "\n"; // print with UP TO 9 digits of precision

  std::cout << std::fixed;
  std::cout << pi << "\n"; // print with EXACTLY 9 digits of precision
  return 0;
}

Output:

$ ./a.out
3.14159
3.14
3.1415927
3.141592700

Memory management

C++ has built-in operators to handle dynamic allocation and deallocation of memory. Use the new[] operator to allocate memory and delete to deallocate. While the syntax is new to you, their functionality should be familiar:

int *p1;
int *p2;
p1 = new int;    // allocate memory for 1 int
p2 = new int[5]; // allocate memory for 5 ints
delete p1;       // deallocate memory for 1 int
delete[] p2;     // deallocate memory for 5 ints
 
 

Template design by Andreas Viklund